Ozone Library

All About Ozone Treatment

An ozone generator, commonly referred to as an ozone machine, creates ozone by supplying energy to oxygen molecules (O2). This causes the oxygen atoms to momentarily break apart and then reunite with other oxygen molecules to form ozone (O3).

Ozone generators are crucial in many industrial applications because they provide an affordable and effective solution for many industrial uses due to their capacity to produce ozone gas, a potent oxidant that may destroy bacteria, viruses, and other dangerous pollutants.

Whether you’re in need of an industrial ozone generator for ozone water treatment, a commercial ozone generator for industrial air purification, or an advanced oxidation system, Ozone generators are the perfect solution for you.

What is Ozone?

Ozone is nature’s way of cleaning the environment. When you hear the news about the damage to the ozone layer, you may think that ozone is air pollution or smog. It is neither. Ozone is a bluish water-soluble gas with a characteristic odor. It is made of oxygen atoms, which are naturally found in nature. It forms when oxygen and ultraviolet light interact high in the stratosphere. Also, ozone is created by waterfalls, the ocean’s surf, and thunder and lightning storms. It is the fresh smell of air at the seashore or the sweet smell after an electrical storm. The ability of ozone to emit a single oxygen atom is critical. Ozone combines with the lower atmosphere’s toxic chemicals given off by automobiles, trucks, buses, utility industries, and other noxious gases to neutralize them. Ozone is nature’s way of cleaning our environment.

ozone oxygen cycle

How effective are ozone generators?

It is very likely that your first online search for “ozone generators” will lead you to a series of air-feed generators. Most of these generators are sold as air purifiers for home use and odor removal or indoor air cleaning but are not practical for industrial applications and water treatment.

An ozone air purifier is typically a small, portable device that is designed to clean the air in a room or small space. Ozone air purifiers are often marketed as a way to improve indoor air quality, but they can also be used for specific purposes, such as removing pet odors or cigarette smoke.

Industrial ozone generators, on the other hand, are larger and more powerful machines that are used for a variety of industrial applications. They can produce higher levels of ozone concentrations and are often used to treat water or remove contaminants from industrial processes.

Industrial ozone generators are widely used across various industries contrary to air-feed ozone generators, Plasma Ozone generators require high concentrations of oxygen (<90% purity) for ozone generation, these units generate ozone gas at concentrations of 10-15%. they are widely used in Industries including food processing, water treatment, and pharmaceutical manufacturing.

In the food processing industry, for example, ozone generators are used to decontaminate and sanitize food products, ensuring that they meet strict health and safety standards. In the water treatment industry, ozone generators are used to purify water by eliminating bacteria and viruses, improving its taste and odor, and making it safe for consumption. In pharmaceutical manufacturing, ozone generators are used to sterilize equipment and surfaces, helping to prevent contamination and ensure product quality.

How Does An Ozone Generator Work?

ozone generation uses the Corona discharge principle. It recreates lightning strikes in a controlled setting. This principle has different names depending on types and styles (dielectric barrier discharge, corona discharge, plasma block, silent corona, etc.) but is fundamentally the same, is simply a diffuse electrical discharge through a dielectric material, the electric charge applied to the electrodes causes some of the oxygen molecules to split apart and temporarily combine with other oxygen molecules making a molecule of three oxygen atoms (O3).

ozone reaction

Concentrated Oxygen for Feed Gas

One of the first questions one is often faced with in designing an ozone system is whether the ozone generator requires concentrated oxygen or simply clean, dry air. I will explain why oxygen-feed ozone generators are the best choice for all industrial ozone generators.

Once we understand how ozone generation works, the problem with air-fed generators becomes clear. Only 21% of air feed is oxygen, this significantly affects the ozone concentration that a generator can achieve. Is not a surprise that uncommon measurement units hide their low performance (like micrograms mg/h instead of g/h). In addition, inside the cells, the remaining 79% of the nitrogen and other gases will form nitric oxide deposits. In this way, ozone production will gradually decrease after a few months. Also, you will require an electrode cleaning/replacement generating an additional unnecessary expense for customers.

In spite of the fact that concentrated oxygen systems are more expensive than dry air systems due to the need for a compressor and complexity, the initial investment is recouped quickly. Concentrated Oxygen refers to an oxygen supply, which is at least 90% pure, with moisture removed to a dew point of -100° F. An industrial ozone generator requires this high concentration source of oxygen in order to produce high levels of ozone generation.

.The advantages of using concentrated oxygen are numerous. It allows for consistent ozone output over time and virtually all moisture is removed from the oxygen, resulting in a more reliable ozone output and eliminating the need for corona cell maintenance. In addition, ozone concentration is higher compared to using dry air, and higher concentrations make it highly soluble in water.

Ozone For Effective Disinfection

Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent that has been shown to be effective in inactivating a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and many volatile organic compounds. Ozone treatment works by disrupting the cell membranes and damaging the cellular components of microorganisms, leading to their inactivation or death.

One of the key advantages of ozone treatment is its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Ozone can inactivate a wide range of microorganisms, including both enveloped and unenveloped viruses, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and various types of fungi and protozoa. This makes it a versatile tool for disinfection and sterilization in a variety of settings, including water treatment, food processing, and healthcare facilities.

Ozone treatment is particularly effective against waterborne pathogens, including Cryptosporidium and Giardia, which can cause gastrointestinal illness. Ozone treatment has been shown to be highly effective in inactivating these pathogens, even at low doses. In addition, ozone treatment can be used to control biofilm formation, which can be a persistent source of contamination in water distribution systems.

In healthcare settings, ozone treatment has been used to control indoor air contaminants and the spread of infectious diseases, including antibiotic-resistant bacteria and viruses such as SARS-CoV-2. Ozone can be used to disinfect surfaces, equipment, and air pollutants in hospital rooms and other healthcare settings, reducing the risk of healthcare-associated infections.

Are ozone generators safe?

The safety of ozone generators depends on how they are used. Ozone can react with and eliminate a wide range of contaminants, including bacteria, viruses, and odors. However, ozone can also be harmful to humans and animals if they are exposed to it at high concentrations for extended periods of time.

Exposure to high levels of ozone can cause respiratory irritation, coughing, chest pain, and shortness of breath. Also, prolonged exposure to high levels of ozone can damage the lungs and cause severe health problems. Additionally, Ozone can also be explosive in certain conditions. That being said, if proper safety precautions are taken, ozone can be used safely.

It is essential to follow safety guidelines and regulations when working with ozone, including the use of personal protective equipment, proper ventilation, and monitoring of ozone levels. It is recommended to follow the manufacturer’s instructions for the safe use of the device and to ensure that the ozone concentration in the air is below the recommended limits.

Ozone Applications

Industrial Ozone generators offer a modular design that is suitable for a range of small, medium, and large ozone applications. Ozone generators have become a key tool for ensuring the safety and quality of industrial processes and products including but not limited to:

“Aqueous vs Gaseous Ozone: Understanding the Differences”

Ozone generator systems can be classified based on their application form, whether it is aqueous or gaseous ozone. Aqueous ozone generators are designed to produce ozone in a liquid or water-based environment. These generators typically require the use of an ozone diffuser, which allows the ozone to dissolve into the water or liquid. Aqueous ozone is commonly used for water treatment, disinfection, and cleaning purposes.

On the other hand, gaseous ozone generators produce ozone in the gas phase. These generators usually require an air source or an oxygen concentrator to supply the necessary gas to the generator. The ozone is then released into the air or can be used in a closed system for sterilization, disinfection, and odor control applications. The choice between aqueous and gaseous ozone generators depends on the intended application. Aqueous ozone generators are ideal for applications that require ozone to be dissolved in water, such as in water treatment plants or for cleaning purposes. Gaseous ozone generators are better suited for applications that require ozone to be used in the air, such as in air purification or sterilization.

Aqueous Ozone Systems (Ozonization)

Ozone gas is partially soluble in the liquid. However, it is possible to reach high mass transfer efficiency using proper methods and equipment. Currently, venturi-based mass transfer systems are the preferred method for dissolving ozone in water due to their simplicity, economy, and effectiveness. The resulting ozone-infused water is then run through a reaction chamber where it comes into contact with contaminants, effectively destroying them.

This process leaves behind clean, purified water that is safe for consumption and use. In addition to its disinfectant properties, ozone also helps to reduce odors, tastes, and colors in the water, making it a versatile and efficient water treatment solution.

conceptual water disinfection

Gaseous Ozone Systems

Gaseous ozone generators can be used in a wide range of air treatment and odor mitigation applications such as cold rooms and biofuels. Ozone is circulated through the air to treat airborne contaminants, as well as contaminants that may be resting on exposed surfaces. By using ozone and its oxidation process, you can efficiently reduce or completely remove airborne odors and contaminants.

It is important to follow safety guidelines and regulations of ozone systems. Ozone shock treatments should be conducted in unoccupied spaces or by a professional ozone service partner like Ozone Solutions. Continuous ozone circulation at low treatment levels should only be conducted after consulting with an ozone professional, such as Ozone Solutions.

This ensures that equipment is rated for continuous use and that the proper safety mechanisms are in place to keep ozone levels within the acceptable threshold.

ozone for cold room diagram



“The trouble is that one soon gets used to dirty air, and offensive odors are not apt to be noticed after a while, but the fact remains that pure air is more wholesome than contaminated air. In daily life, it is almost impossible to provide fresh air. No amount of ventilation, not even an unbearable draft, will be able to keep a room or a place in proper condition unless one takes recourse to ventilate with ozonized air. Removal of foul odors by means of air flushing is an absolute impossibility, and yet they should be removed. That is where ozone comes in. The method of purifying the air by ozone has the advantage of being fully reliable, very efficient, and inexpensive.”

• A. Vosmaer, Ph.D., Electrical and Chemical Engineer, London, England •
In “Ozone, its Manufacture, Properties and Uses”

“Ozone destroys virtually all odors that are present. It does not merely mask them. The destruction of odors is impossible when air is circulated only, or when oxygen is used. Cold storage warehouses, which store all kinds of food products, have proven this. Odors are not present regardless of how strong they might be, or where they may originate if only low concentrations of Ozone are used.”

• E. W. Reisbeck. M. E., Ozone Research Authority •
In “Air Conditioning and Ozone Facts”

“As a deodorant for odors and stenches of organic origin, ozone has long proven effective and we can only confirm this general opinion.”


“Ozone treatment destroys organic odors. Ozone is a deodorizer of powerful stenches, such as from garbage incineration and fat rendering. When the odors from chimneys cause public nuisance, Ozone has big commercial potential.”

• Milton J. Rosenaw, MD

In “Preventive Medicine and Hygiene”

“Experiments with cholera and typhus bacteria are rather awkward to be carried out in a private plant, handling, say a million gallons of water per day, and the firm Siemens and Halske were very fortunate to find the Prussian State officials willing and ready to test the matter. Dr. Ohlmueller and Dr. Prall published the results of their findings regarding the action of Ozone on bacteria. The experimental series covered the effect of Ozone on pure water infected with 16,000 cholera, at another time with 30,000 to 40,000 typhus, and another time with 20,000 to 40,000 coli bacteria. The result was absolute sterility after treatment. We then tested infected ordinary river water that contained over 4,000 bacteria. After treatment with Ozone, some 5 or 6 were left, and those were harmless.”


“Ozone treatment is a powerful germicidal. Its high germicidal activity is doubtless due to its oxidizing power.”

• E. K. RIDEAL, PH.D. 

“Ozone generators have been installed in many homes, and that super-oxygen is particularly destructive to all microbes and at the same time it makes inert the dangerous dust with its bacteria-laden tenants.”


“One part Ozone in 2 million p. solution renders the virus poliomyelitis inactive within 2 minutes compared with the double amount of chlorine using 3 hours.”

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